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Course Descriptions

Course Descriptions

PHAR 123       General Chemistry for Health Sciences

(3-1)6

The aim of this course is to introduce students the methods used to determine the properties of matter and changes that matter undergoes. A basic course intended for majors in pharmacy emphasizes atomic theory, stoichiometry , the structural and physical properties of matter,  the electronic structure of atoms, chemical bonding, termochemistry, chemical kinetics and chemical equilibrium. Discussion of  properties of the states of matter and the properties of solutions are also included.  

 

PHAR 122

Pharmaceutical Botany

(2 – 3)6

General concepts, definition of medicinal plants and crude drugs, biological active substances and their usage; important plant families in pharmaceutical sciences; importance of medicinal plants in pharmacy, distribution and usage of Turkish medicinal plants. Laboratory: preliminary information: plant nomenclature, identification of the morphological features, preparation of the herbal materials and their storage; general concepts of the plant identification; examination of roots, stems, metamorphosis, leaves, flowers, fruits; identification of medicinal herbs.

PHAR 126

Analytical Chemistry I 

(3 – 3)6

General concepts in analytical chemistry; chemistry of aqueous solution, solubility; selective precipitation; gravimetric analysis; acids, bases; buffer solutions; principles of volumetric analysis, acid-base titrations, carbonate-bicarbonate titrations, precipitation titrations, oxidation-reduction titrations and complexometric titrations. Prerequisite: CHEM 123

PHAR 211

Organic Chemistry I

(2 – 3)6

Introduction to organic chemistry; carbon compounds and chemical bonds; acid-base reactions; representation of functional groups; reaction and mechanisms; alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, alkyl halides and their reactions; cycloalkanes; constitutional, conformational and stereoisomers; alcohols; ethers and epoxides; oxidation-reduction reactions in organic chemistry. Laboratory: Laboratory safety guidelines and introduction of the laboratory equipments; Chem-Draw and Scifinder applications; organic library resources; experimental determination, purification and isolation techniques of some organic molecules. Prerequisite: CHEM 123

PHAR 212

Organic Chemistry II

(2 – 3)6

Reactions of conjugated unsaturated systems; aromatic compounds and their reactions; aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids and their derivatives; amines; phenols; carbonhydrates; amino acids and proteins. Laboratory: Synthesis of some organic molecules and intermediates by using new techniques and their analysis. Prerequisite: PHAR 211.

PHAR 214

Biochemistry   

(3-0)6

The structural and functional organization of the cell; organelles and their functions; lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins; enzymatic catalysis, enzyme kinetics, coenzymes; structure and function of the nucleic acids; biological membranes and transport mechanisms; bioenergetics; glycolysis; citric acid (TCA) cycle and its regulation.

PHAR 215

Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Immunology

(3-2)5

Introduction to microbiology; the structure of bacterial cell, metabolism of bacteria, growth of bacteria, bacterial genetics, pathogenesis of bacterial infections, normal flora of human body; sterilization, antisepsis and disinfection; antibiotics and their mechanisms of action; bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms; some of the medically important bacteria and their infections; the structure of fungi, some of the medically important fungi and their infections; morphologic and chemical structures of viruses; the classification of viruses, viral replication, the pathogenesis of viral infections; introduction to parasitology; protozoa and their infections; helmints and their infections; details of the adaptive and innate immune systems; immune recognition, communication between different immune system cell types, and autoimmunity; the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders; the chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system.

PHAR 223

Analytical Chemistry II

(3-3)6

Main concepts of Analytical Chemistry (Main concepts, Concentrations, Error Types), Chemistry of Aqueous Solutions, Selective precipitation, Gravimetric analysis, Acid-Base Reactions (Strong, Weak, Polyprotic / Polyfunctional Acids / Bases, pH/pOH), Buffer Solutions, Volumetric Analysis (Neutralization Titrations, Redox Titrations, Precipitation (Argentometric Titrations, Complexometric Titrations). Prerequisite: CHEM 123

PHAR 224

Pharmaceutical Regulations and Ethics

(3-0)3

Various concepts of pharmaceutical regulatory affairs; professional duties and internships in accordance with both national and international pharmacy law; regulatory standards; ways of application of ethical and professional principles in various healthcare settings.

PHAR 232

Public Health and Health Systems

(3-0)3

Concept of public health; primary health care; health organization in ottoman empire and its effects on today's organization; socialization of health services in Turkey; health legislation; personal rights of health care personnel; health education; early diagnosis; epidemic and pandemic diseases; family planning; immunization; medical ethics; environmental health.

PHAR 234

Basics of Pharmacy Practice and Drug Information

(3-1)4

The ways of reaching the right drug-information sources as well as retrieving; evaluating and utilizing this information in a critical and scientific manner during their dispensing duties in various pharmacy settings.

PHAR 299

Early Apprenticeship

(0-0)6

Four-week, full-time (40 hours per week) community pharmacy practice; total of 160 (4 x 40) hours.

PHAR 313

Clinical Biochemistry

(2-3)6

Metabolism of biomolecules; biochemical basis of diseases; cancer biochemistry. Laboratory: Basic techniques in biochemical analysis; hematological tests; quantitative tests for carbohydrates, proteins and total lipids in blood and urine; determination of cholesterol and lipoproteins in plasma; liver and kidney function tests; determination of salicylate and its metabolites in urine; binding properties of salicylates to serum albumin; enzymatic tests, enzymes used for diagnosis and evaluating of the treatment in some diseases; immunoassay and immunodiffusion techniques; determination of proteins by PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Prerequisite: PHAR 214

PHAR 315

Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry I

(2-3)6

Introduction to pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry; drug design strategies; metabolic changes of drugs; anti-infective agents; antimalarials; antibacterial antibiotics; antiviral agents; antineoplastic agents; diagnostic imaging agents; anticonvulsants; cns drugs. Laboratory: Synthesis of some pharmacologically active molecules and their isolation, purification and spectroscopic identification. Prerequisite: PHAR 212.

PHAR 316

Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry II

(2-3)6

Drugs effecting nervous system and cardiovascular agents; nonsteroidal therapies; anesthetics; antihistaminic agents; analgesics; steroid hormones and therapeutically related compounds; proteins; enzymes; vitamins, medicinal chemistry of herbs. Laboratory: paper, thin layer, column and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques and their applications in drug analysis; separation of solid-solid and liquid-liquid mixtures; determination of drug metabolites and pharmacopoeia analysis. Prerequisite: PHAR 212.

PHAR 331

Pharmacology I               

(3-0)4

Introduction to pharmacology; absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of drugs; routes of drug administration; dose-concentration relationship; receptors and drug-receptor relationship; basic principles of drug action; interactions between drugs; pharmacogenetics; antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics. Prerequisite: MED 201

PHAR 332

Pharmacology II             

(3-0)4

Drugs affecting autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system; drugs affecting renal conservation of water and metabolic acid-base balance; rational and safe drug use.

PHAR 342

Pharmacotherapy I

(4-2)6

Knowledge and skills needed to collect sufficient patient data for self-care assesment; design and implementation of a patient- centered nonprescription drug therapy for self- care in the thearpeutic areas such as pain and fever, reproductive and genital, gastrointestinal, opthalmic, otic, oral, dermatologic disorders; nutrition and nutritional supplementation. Prerequisite: PHAR 331, PHAR 313

PHAR 352

Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics

(3-1)5

Introduction to the study of the time course of the drugs in the body with reference to their absorption, distribution and elimination; physiological and pharmaceutical factors effecting bioavailability; bioequivalence and related calculations; the modified release formulations; drug release; method for modifying release and quality control of each dosage form; in vitro-in vivo correlations; compartment models and importance. Laboratory: Drug release; dissolution studies; computer based pharmacokinetics. Prerequisite: PHAR 331, PHAR 221

PHAR 361

Pharmaceutical Technology I

(2-3)5

Principles and dosage forms; introduction to basic dosage form design; physicochemical principles relevant to pharmaceutical dosage forms and preformulation factors; pharmaceutical equilibrium; isotonicity; pH; buffers; colligative properties; solubility; dissolution; viscosity; pharmaceutical solutions; kinetics and drugs degradation in solutions; unit operations; water purification. Laboratory: Preparation of aromatic waters; oral solution; syrups; elixirs; oral/ear drugs; infusions; suspension; emulsion; liniments; ointments; suppositories.

PHAR 362

Pharmaceutical Technology II

(2-3)5

Disperse systems, their design composition and physical chemical principles, relevant to these forms and mechanisms of drug release from them systems (Colloidal dispersions, suspensions, emulsion, aerosols); semi-solid and related systems; ointments; suppositories; rheology; transdermal delivery systems; cosmetics; the basic science of solid dosage forms; covering formulations of tablets; granules; capsules; microcapsules; solid state stability; GMP and quality assurance; providing the fundamental principles used to formulate; manufacture and control sterile products; primarily injectables; formulation criteria; stability-incompatibility; sterilization methods; process validation; packaging and evaluation; formulation of pharmaceutical biotechnology products Laboratory: Practice-formulate; analyse; preparation of granules; tablets and capsules and their quality tests; sterile injection solutions; ampule filling; sealing; sterilization; carrying out quality control tests.

PHAR 381

Evidence Based Pharmacy and Literature Survey

(0-2)2

Fundamentals of research design and methodology; principles of evaluating literature; the skill of understanding published medical studies as well as commonly used statistical tests and their application to clinical practice.

PHAR 399

Core Apprenticeship

(0-0)6

Four-weeks, full-time (40 hours per week) clinical and hospital pharmacy practice total of 160 (4 x 40) hours. Prerequisite: PHAR 331, PHAR 342

PHAR 411

History of Pharmacy

(2-0)3

The progress of pharmacy profession in different parts and cultures of the world from the ancient times until today; progress of the profession in Turkish Republic; explanation of ethics and deontology concepts; discussion on the Turkish Pharmacists’ Code of Ethics and the other codes in different countries; case-studies on ethics.

PHAR 421

Pharmacognosy

(2-3)5

Demonstration on microscope, quantitative microscopy (measurement in microscope plant cells and tissues), microscopical analysis; examination of unknown sample; qualitative analysis; chromatographic applications; quantitative analysis of sugar, analysis of oligosaccarides and heterosides; experiments of proteins; definition of steroids and terpenoids as secondary metabolites from plant materials, their physical and chemical properties and structures; the separation, detection and determination methods, their biological activities; drugs rich in terpenoids and steroids and volatile oils; their traditional usages and specifications. Laboratory: demonstration on microscope, microscopical examinations in theory, quantitative microscope (measurement in microscope); plant cells and tissues, microscopical analysis, examination of unknown sample; total qualitative analysis; explanation of the isolation techniques; methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis; classification of volatile and fixed oils; quantitative analysis of volatile oils by volumetric and gravimetric methods; quantitative analysis of fixed oils.

PHAR 423

Pharmacogenomics      

(2-0)3

The latest updates on genomic science; application of genomics to biological systems and therapeutics of diseases.

PHAR 426

Pharmaceutical Toxicology

(3-0)5

History and principles of toxicology; toxicity tests; absorption, distribution, and excretion of toxicants; biotransformation of toxicants; mechanisms of toxic effects; factors affecting toxicity; classification of toxic effects; mutagenesis and mutagenic agents; teratogenesis and teratogenic agents; carcinogenesis; carcinogenic agents; allergic reactions and immunotoxic effect; toxicological assessment of drug-drug interactions; hypersensitivity reactions of toxicants and idiosyncratic reactions; general approach to emergency management of poisoning.

PHAR 441

Pharmacotherapy II

(4-2)6

Gastrointestinal disorders; respiratory disorders; ophtalmic disorders; dermatologic disorders. Prerequisite: PHAR 331, PHAR 313

PHAR 442

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

(2-0)3

Recombinant DNA technology, the genes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, expression of recombinant biopharmaceuticals I: monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and adjuvants, cytokines), cell culture, fermentation technology, recombinant biopharmaceuticals II: insulin, therapeutic hormones, therapeutic enzymes, clotting factors, the structure of proteins, features, purification of a biopharmaceuticals in the protein structure and making preparations ultrafiltration-Chromatography with advanced purification of peptide and protein degradation and physical stability, parenteral formulations of peptides and proteins, oral formulations of peptides and proteins, peptides and proteins targeted their ethics of biotechnological drugs, safety and patent , peptides and therapeutic applications of new systems of proteins, vaccine delivery systems and biopharmaceuticals plant (Plant tissue culture and history, and synthesis of secondary metabolites) includes issues.

PHAR 443

Pharmacotherapy III

(4-2)6

Endocrinologic disorders; gynecologic disorders; renal disorders; urologic disorders.

Prerequisite: PHAR 331, PHAR 313

PHAR 444

Pharmacotherapy IV

(4-2)6

Cardiovascular disorders and infectious diseases; immunologic and rheumatologic disorders. Prerequisite: PHAR 331, PHAR 31

PHAR 446

Pharmacotherapy V

(4-2)6

Neurologic disorders; psychiatric disorders; hematologic disorders.

Prerequisite: PHAR 331, PHAR 313

PHAR 451

Pharmacy Management

(2-0)3

Management in community pharmacy practice and hospital pharmacy; gain business and management skills needed in a variety of different practice settings together with informatics.

PHAR 452

Scientific Presentation and Writing Technics

(2-0)3

Scientific Presentations: Oral presentations - poster presentations, scientific journals and article types, important ethical principles in scientific papers and presentations, appropriate selection for the publication of research journals, arbitration in scientific papers.

PHAR   454

 Pharmaceutical Analytical Calculations 

(2-0)3

Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical calculations, International System of Units, Pharmaceutical measurement, density, specific weight, Specific Volume, Percent strength, Strength Ratio and other concentration units, isotonic and buffer solutions, electrolyte solutions, changing the product strength, use of stock solutions, scale-up and reducing of pharmaceutical formulations and calculations related to active drug area.

PHAR 472

Radiopharmaceuticals

(2-0)3

Radiopharmaceuticals; diagnostic imaging technologies; radiopharmaceuticals drug types; nuclear pharmacy practice.

PHAR 473

Challenges in Formulating Modern Drugs: Biopharmaceuticals / Biologics

(2-0)3

The aim of this option is to present students with knowledge on the specific barriers that these medicines may encounter, their manufacturing and the regulatory environment for these activities.

PHAR 474

Introduction to Molecular Biology Techniques

(2-0)3

Basic molecular biology principles and techniques; selected aspects of molecular biology; the structure and functional relationships of molecular biology techniques.

PHAR 475

Pharmaceutical Care

(2-0)3

Introduction to pharmacotherapy courses; understanding of the philosophy of patient-centered drug therapy; description of medication management services; patient-centered medication approach; problems faced in drug therapy; making a care plan; follow up and evaluation and documentation in practice; learning the ways of collaboration with other patient care providers.

PHAR 476

Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control

(2-0)3

Quality control in drug; European pharmacopeia; the validation of analytical methods; pH determination; solvent balance; impurity of new active material; specifications for the final product; test procedures; serial analysis; CTD; assays, (Ph. Eur); dissolution and diffusion assays for tablets and capsules.

PHAR   477     

Biology of Aging and Rejuvenation Medicine

(2-0)3

This course will summarize current knowledge about how and why we age and mechanisms of age-related diseases. In addition to healthy aging strategies, delaying and returning of aging and arising age-related pathologies will be discussed. The course will focus on molecular, cellular and physiological changes occurring in the aging process in humans and other living. The main topics are aging theories, genetic regulation of longevity in model systems, the role of spontaneous chemical reactions on aging and therapeutic modulation of the aging process.

PHAR 478

Quality Assurance and Regulations

(2-0)3

Quality assurance; pharmaceutical analysis; good laboratory practices (GLP); drug approval procedures.

PHAR 479     

Drug Development: Arising of a Drug From Preclinical to Marketing

(2-0)3

Obtaining the initial compound, optimization; rational drug design; pre-clinical studies; Phase I/II and phase III tests; samples.

PHAR 480

The Role of Regulatory Agencies in Drug Development

(2-0)3

Introduction to the guidelines for preparation of an drug approval file; the three important institute (FDA, EMEA and Turkish Health Ministry) and the applications in Turkey.

PHAR 481

Pharmacoeconomics and Epidemiology

(2-0)3

Definitions of general economy and its epidemiologic concepts; methodology of epidemiologic and economic research.

PHAR 482

Phythotherapy

(2-0)3

Introduction and history of phytotherapy; plants using against gastrointestinal diseases; the plants using against cardiovascular diseases; the plants using against respiratory system diseases; the plants using against urinary system illness; the plants using against rheumatism; the plants using as sedative; the plants using in gynecology; the plants using in ophthalmology; the plants using in dermatology; the plants using in cancer treatment; the plants using in aromatic baths.

PHAR 483

Developments in Life Sciences

(2-0)3

New trends in life sciences; searching the most recent scientific articles, presentation and discussion of the articles.

PHAR   484     

Introduction to Bioinformatics

(2-0)3

Biological and medical data are piling up at in the age of big data with an astonishing speed.  The data is Whether a DNA sequence or three-dimensional structure of a new protein, are always stored in a database. Some of these databases to be accessed over the internet. Accordingly, tools to analyze this data is in continuous development. For those who want to do research in life sciences, it is important to be aware of common databases and software used by scientists. This will be a practical introductory course and it will include methods and applications relating to sequence alignment, gene expression data analysis and online tools used for detecting the connection of  molecular variation with  disease and drug response.

PHAR   490     

Rational Drug Use

(2-0)3

The course aims to identify the accuracy of prescribing methods as ensure appropriate treatment, diagnostic and the recommendations given to patients. İt is aimed that the students are sure to how the correct dose of the drug giving in the necessary time.  The course aims to give information about why and when to take medication,  the possible side effects and when this side effects must arise worry, to be ensure to use correct amount and quality of drug.

PHAR 491

Pharmaceutical Care for Oncology and Hematology Patients

(2-0)3

The course intended to develop awareness in the students about the distinctiveness and sensitivity of cancer patients and their management in the oncology inpatient clinics. The course expand the pharmacy students knowledge about cancer management by discussing the mechanism of chemotherapy drugs, the principles of combination and the major adverse effect associated with the widely used protocols. After this course the students will be able to develop pharmaceutical care plan to deal with chemotherapy side effects and provide an optimum supportive care.

PHAR 493

Decision-making and Leadership

(2-0)3

Information will be given about management skills necessary in Pharmacies, hospitals and industry. In addition, ensuring effective communication between managers and team-mates, performing  productive work the team members to and time management, stress management, motivation, have very great importance in professional life, are examined in detail. Also, due to changes in today's era leadership in change is described; as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the four generations working together for the first time, intergenerational harmony are addressed.

PHAR 499

Advanced Apprenticeship I

(0-0)6

Four-week, full-time (40 hours per week) community pharmacy practice; total of 160 (4 x 40) hours. Prerequisite: PHAR 342.

PHAR 500

Graduation Project II   

(0-0)10

The students continue their studies on the subject in the Graduation Project.  Students come to school for one (1) day in a week to conduct the literature survey studies and / or practical studies under the supervision of a faculty member. By the end of the period, students have to present their graduation project orally, in writing and poster presentations to Graduation Project Reviewing Jury.

PHAR  584     

Community Pharmacy Practices I 

(0-0)12

Seven weeks, full-time (40 Hours per week) community pharmacy practice; total of 280 (7 x 40) hours. Prerequisite: PHAR 299, PHAR 399, PHAR 342.

PHAR 586     

Industry Practices I       

(0-0)12

Seven weeks, full-time (40 Hours per week) total of 280 (7 x 40) hours. Students will conduct the internship in research laboratories and centers in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies determined by the faculty. Prerequisite: PHAR 299, PHAR 399, PHAR 342.

PHAR 588     

Hospital Pharmacy Practices I

(0-0)12

Seven weeks, full-time (40 Hours per week) total of 280 (7 x 40) hours. Students will conduct the internship in hospital pharmacies. Prerequisite: PHAR 299, PHAR 399, PHAR 342.

PHAR 591

Advanced Community Pharmacy Practices

(0-0)8

Five-weeks, full-time (40 hours per week) community pharmacy practice; total of 160 (4 x 40) hours. Prerequisite: PHAR 299, PHAR 399.

PHAR 593

Advanced Clinical Pharmacy Practices

(0-0)16

Ten-weeks, full-time (40 hours per week) clinical pharmacy practice; total of 400 (10 x 40) hours. Prerequisite: PHAR 342, PHAR 441, PHAR 443, PHAR 444, PHAR 446.

PHAR 574

Community Pharmacy Practices II

(0-0)8

Five-weeks, full-time (40 hours per week) community pharmacy practice; total of 200 (5 x 40) hours. Prerequisite: PHAR 299, PHAR 399, PHAR 342.

PHAR 595

Graduation  Project I

(0-0)6

The students chose the area that they want to study in the Graduation Project.  Students come to school for one (1) day in a week to conduct the literature survey studies and / or practical studies under the supervision of a faculty member. By the end of the period, students have to present their graduation project orally, in writing and poster presentations to Graduation Project Reviewing Jury.

PHAR 576

Industry Practices II

(0-0)8

Five-weeks, full-time (40 hours per week) elective practice; total of 200 (5 x 40) hours. This practice is to be carried out in research laboratories, research centers, or drug or cosmetics firms determined by the School. Prerequisite: PHAR 299, PHAR 399, PHAR 342.

PHAR 598

Hospital Pharmacy Practices II

     (0-0)8

Five-weeks, full-time (40 hours per week) elective practice; total of 200 (5 x 40) hours. Students will conduct the internship in hospital pharmacies. Prerequisite: PHAR 299, PHAR 399, PHAR 342.

PHAR 304         Communication Skills in Pharmacy Practice                          

(3-0)4

This course will cover all aspects of professional communication, including gathering, organizing, conveying and documenting patient-related information. The courses emphasize a patient-centered approach to communication and cover social factors such as health literacy, barriers to communication and cultural competency. The course will foster and develop professional behaviors and attitudes in pharmacy practice. This course will introduce the concept of motivational interviewing and documentation of patient-specific information in health records. This active learning course consists of a didactic sessions and small group session.

PHAR 495          Pharmaceutical Calculations and Compounding

(2-0)3

Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Calculations; Prescriptions and Medication Orders; International System of Units; Pharmaceutical Measurements, Percentage and Ratio Strength; Other Expressions of Concentration, Dilution, Alligation method; Age-, Weight, Surface area-based dosage calculations, Calculations for Compounding; Calculations for day’s supply, Case studies; Compounding Law; Advanced pharmaceutical compounding and dispensing methods: incompatibilities in prescription, good compounding and dispensing practices, Advanced compounding of solutions, emulsions, suspensions, cream, gel, ointment.

PHAR  581          Advanced Community Pharmacy Practices

(0-0)8

The main objective of this internship is to develop the knowledge and skills of the student’s in the community pharmacy. Four-week, full-time (40 hours per week) community pharmacy practice; total of 160 (4 x 40) hours.

PHAR 582           Public Pharmacy Practices I

(0-0)12

The purpose of this internship is to learn and experience the duties and responsibilities of pharmacists working in public institutions. Seven-week, full-time (40 hours per week) public pharmacy practice; total of 280 (7 x 40) hours.

PHAR  572          Public Pharmacy Practices II

(0-0)12

The purpose of this internship is to learn and experience the duties and responsibilities of pharmacists working in public institutions. Five-week, full-time (40 hours per week) public pharmacy practice; total of 200 (5 x 40) hours.